The Largest Endorcrine Gland: Thyroid

The thyroid gland is located immediately below the larynx on either side of the trachea, is one of the largest butter fly shaped endocrine glands. The thyroid secretes two major hormones, thyroxine and triiodothyronine, also known as T4 and T3, respectively. Both of these hormones profoundly accelerates the basal metabolic rate of the body.Thyroid secretion is solely controlled by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secreted from anterior pituitary gland. Thyroid hormones stimulate O2 consumption of almost entire cells in the body, help regulate lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and thereby influence body mass. Consequences of thyroid gland dysfunction depend on the life stage at which they occur. Though these hormones are not essential for life, but their absence during fetal and neonatal life results in severe mental retardness and decreased growth rate. In adults, hypothyroidism is accompanied by mental and physical slowing and poor resistance to cold. Conversely, hyper functioning of thyroid leads to body wasting, nervousness, tremor, and increase body heat.

thyroid glandThyroid hormones
The primary hormone secreted by the thyroid is thyroxine (T4), along with much lesser amounts of triiodothyronine. However, almost all the thyroxine is eventually converted to triiodothyronine. To form normal quantities of thyroxine, iodine in the form of ingested iodides found in common table salt is required. The functions of these two hormones are qualitatively the same, but they differ in impact of their action. 

Function of thyroid hormone
Thyroid Hormones Increase Overall Metabolic Activity: The thyroid hormones increase the overall metabolic activity of almost all the tissues of the body. The rate of consumption of foods for energy is enormously speed up. Greatly increased thyroidhormone almost always accompanied with decreases body weight and inflation of appetite. The rate of protein anabolism as well as rate of protein catabolism is also increased. The growth rate of young people is greatly charged up. The mental development are excited, and the activities of most of the other endocrine glands are increased.Production of ATP: One of the principal functions of thyroxine is simply to augment he number and activity of mitochondria, the power house of the cell, which in turn increases the rate of formation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP , the energy reservoir then supply energy to other notable cellular activities Increased Cardiac Output: thyroid hormone seems to have a direct effect on the excitability of the heart, which in turn increases the heart rate and blood flow within the heart. This together contributes to the ultimate heart strength.

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